Radiation-inducible immediate-early gene IEX-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IER3gene.
This gene functions in the protection of cells from Fas- or tumor necrosis factor type alpha-induced apoptosis. Partially degraded and unspliced transcripts are found after virus infection in vitro, but these transcripts are not found in vivo and do not generate a valid protein.
Bolloré is a French investment and industrial holding group headquartered in Puteaux, on the western outskirts of Paris, France. The company, a paper-energy-plantations-logistics conglomerate, employs 28,000 people around the world.
In 2004, the group ranked amongst the top 200 European companies. Whilst the company is listed on the Euronext exchange in Paris, the Bolloré family retains majority control of the company through a complex and indirect holding structure.
The firm was founded in 1822, in Ergué-Gabéric, near Quimper, Brittany by Nicolas Le Marié (1797-1870), as a paper manufacturer named papeteries d'Odet. Beginning in 1863, it was directed by Jean-René Bolloré (1818–1881), a nephew by marriage who had obtained a medical doctorate in 1863.
The firm remained owned by the Bolloré family. Gwenn-Aël Bolloré was Vice-President of the Papeteries Bolloré from 1952 to 1974. In late 2004 the Bolloré group began taking an interest in the advertising sector, and started building a stake in Havas, becoming its single largest share-holder. In a boardroom coup Alain de Pouzilhac was deposed as President and CEO on July 12, 2005. The Bolloré stake in Havas stood at 26%, and the group had 3 seats on the Havas board as of June 2006. Vincent Bolloré's son Yannick Bolloré is now Havas' Chairman and CEO after the stepping down of its previous CEO in January 2014. Also in 2005, Bolloré expanded its media interests by launching the Direct 8 television station.